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APFS explained; what you need to know for iOS 10.3 and macOS

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Recently released with the iOS 10.3 beta, APFS will soon replace your Apple device’s thirty year old file system. This means your Apple Watch, iPhone, iPad, Mac, and Apple TV will all see upgrades from the HFS+ system. Bringing in new optimization for the storage technologies of today, with encryption built-in as a primary feature, Apple File System will bring a slew of new benefits to users in 2017. Let’s go over what these changes are, and what you should expect out of your favorite apps and devices.

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Filed under: Apple



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chrisminett
4 days ago
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ooh, new files system imminent
Milton Keynes, UK
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Password Rules Are Bullshit

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Of the many, many, many bad things about passwords, you know what the worst is? Password rules.

Let this pledge be duly noted on the permanent record of the Internet. I don't know if there's an afterlife, but I'll be finding out soon enough, and I plan to go out mad as hell.

The world is absolutely awash in terrible password rules:

But I don't need to tell you this. The more likely you are to use a truly random password generation tool, like us über-geeks are supposed to, the more likely you have suffered mightily – and daily – under this regime.

Have you seen the classic XKCD about passwords?

To anyone who understands information theory and security and is in an infuriating argument with someone who does not (possibly involving mixed case), I sincerely apologize.

We can certainly debate whether "correct horse battery staple" is a viable password strategy or not, but the argument here is mostly that length matters.

That's What She Said

No, seriously, it does. I'll go so far as to say your password is too damn short. These days, given the state of cloud computing and GPU password hash cracking, any password of 8 characters or less is perilously close to no password at all.

So then perhaps we have one rule, that passwords must not be short. A long password is much more likely to be secure than a short one … right?

What about this four character password?

✅🐎🔋🖇️

What about this eight character password?

正确马电池订书钉

Or this (hypothetical, but all too real) seven character password?

You may also be surprised, if you paste the above four Unicode emojis into your favorite login dialog (go ahead – try it), to discover that it … isn't in fact four characters.

Oh dear.

"💩".length === 2

Our old pal Unicode strikes again.

As it turns out, even the simple rule that "your password must be of reasonable length" … ain't necessarily so. Particularly if we stop thinking like Ugly ASCII Americans.

And what of those nice, long passwords? Are they always secure?

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
0123456789012345689
passwordpassword
usernamepassword

Of course not, because have you met any users lately?

I changed all my passwords to

They consistently ruin every piece of software I've ever written. Yes, yes, I know you, Mr. or Ms. über-geek, know all about the concept of entropy. But expressing your love of entropy as terrible, idiosyncratic password rules …

  • must contain uppercase
  • must contain lowercase
  • must contain a number
  • must contain a special character

… is a spectacular failure of imagination in a world of Unicode and Emoji.

As we built Discourse, I discovered that the login dialog was a remarkably complex piece of software, despite its surface simplicity. The primary password rule we used was also the simplest one: length. Since I wrote that, we've already increased our minimum password default length from 8 to 10 characters. And if you happen to be an admin or moderator, we decided the minimum has to be even more, 15 characters.

I also advocated checking passwords against the 100,000 most common passwords. If you look at 10 million passwords from data breaches in 2016, you'll find the top 25 most used passwords are:

123456
123456789
qwerty
12345678
111111
1234567890
1234567
password
123123
987654321
qwertyuiop
mynoob
123321
666666
18atcskd2w
7777777
1q2w3e4r
654321
555555
3rjs1la7qe
google
1q2w3e4r5t
123qwe
zxcvbnm
1q2w3e

Even this data betrays some ASCII-centrism. The numbers are the same in any culture I suppose, but I find it hard to believe the average Chinese person will ever choose the passwords "password", "quertyuiop", or "mynoob". So this list has to be customizable, localizable.

(One interesting idea is to search for common shorter password matches inside longer passwords, but I think this would cause too many false positives.)

If you examine the data, this also turns into an argument in favor of password length. Note that only 5 of the top 25 passwords are 10 characters, so if we require 10 character passwords, we've already reduced our exposure to the most common passwords by 80%. I saw this originally when I gathered millions and millions of leaked passwords for Discourse research, then filtered the list down to just those passwords reflecting our new minimum requirement of 10 characters or more.

It suddenly became a tiny list. (If you've done similar common password research, please do share your results in the comments.)

I'd like to offer the following common sense advice to my fellow developers:

1. Password rules are bullshit

  • They don't work.
  • They heavily penalize your ideal audience, people that use real random password generators. Hey guess what, that password randomly didn't have a number or symbol in it. I just double checked my math textbook, and yep, it's possible. I'm pretty sure.
  • They frustrate average users, who then become uncooperative and use "creative" workarounds that make their passwords less secure.
  • They are often wrong, in the sense that the rules chosen are grossly incomplete and/or insane, per the many shaming links I've shared above.
  • Seriously, for the love of God, stop with this arbitrary password rule nonsense already. If you won't take my word for it, read this 2016 NIST password rules recommendation. It's right there, "no composition rules". However, I do see one error, it should have said "no bullshit composition rules".

2. Enforce a minimum Unicode password length

One rule is at least easy to remember, understand, and enforce. This is the proverbial one rule to bring them all, and in the darkness bind them.

  • It's simple. Users can count. Most of them, anyway.
  • It works. The data shows us it works; just download any common password list of your choice and group by password length.
  • The math doesn't lie. All other things being equal, a longer password will be more random – and thus more secure – than a short password.
  • Accept that even this one rule isn't inviolate. A minimum password length of 6 on a Chinese site might be perfectly reasonable. A 20 character password can be ridiculously insecure.
  • If you don't allow (almost) every single unicode character in the password input field, you are probably doing it wrong.
  • It's a bit of an implementation detail, but make sure maximum password length is reasonable as well.

3. Check for common passwords

As I've already noted, the definition of "common" depends on your audience, and language, but it is a terrible disservice to users when you let them choose passwords that exist in the list of 10k, 100k, or million most common known passwords from data breaches. There's no question that a hacker will submit these common passwords in a hack attempt – and it's shocking how far you can get, even with aggressive password attempt rate limiting, using just the 1,000 most common passwords.

  • 1.6% have a password from the top 10 passwords
  • 4.4% have a password from the top 100 passwords
  • 9.7% have a password from the top 500 passwords
  • 13.2% have a password from the top 1,000 passwords
  • 30% have a password from the top 10,000 passwords

Lucky you, there are millions and millions of real breached password lists out there to sift through. It is sort of fun to do data forensics, because these aren't hypothetical synthetic Jack the Ripper password rules some bored programmer dreamed up, these are real passwords used by real users.

Do the research. Collect the data. Protect your users from themselves.

4. Check for basic entropy

No need to get fancy here; pick the measure of entropy that satisfies you deep in the truthiness of your gut. But remember you have to be able to explain it to users when they fail the check, too.

entropy visualized

I had a bit of a sad when I realized that we were perfectly fine with users selecting a 10 character password that was literally "aaaaaaaaaa". In my opinion, the simplest way to do this is to ensure that there are at least (x) unique characters out of (y) total characters. And that's what we do as of the current beta version of Discourse. But I'd love your ideas in the comments, too. The simpler and clearer the better!

5. Reject special case passwords

I'm embarrassed to admit that when building the Discourse login, as I discussed in The God Login, we missed two common cases that you really have to block:

  • password equal to username
  • password equal to email address

🤦 If you are using Discourse versions earlier than 1.4, I'm so sorry and please upgrade immediately.

Similarly, you might also want to block other special cases like

  • password equal to URL or domain of website
  • password equal to app name

In short, try to think outside the password input box, like a user would.

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chrisminett
14 days ago
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We need to check the last points (username, app name)
Milton Keynes, UK
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2 public comments
wmorrell
16 days ago
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True story: work wants to roll out Microsoft Office 365, and I was one of the first trial users. I got a post-it with an 8 character password from the IT grunt tapped to be the AD admin. As is my habit, I immediately changed the password with a random one created by a password manager. The password was 20 characters. The change password form accepts the new password and prints a happy "password changed!" message. I log out, then try to log back in; the login page then informs me that the maximum … *maximum* password length is 16 characters and rejects my login. Okay … truncate it to 16, maybe the change form cut it off. Login fails. Go back to IT grunt to get a password reset, get a new 8-character password. Login fails. Reset again. Be very careful copying down password, very careful entering it back in. Login fails.
So, it turns out that there is no length validation on Office 365 password change forms, and going over the 16-character minimum mentioned nowhere on the page will *permanently* lock your account. 👍
expatpaul
16 days ago
Why is there even an upper limit? If the password is properly salted and hashed then only the hash should matter.
wmorrell
16 days ago
From what I found, it is some backward-compatible dependency thing with Active Directory syncing, which Microsoft has not cared enough about to fix. Possibly something with early Windows versions storing passwords as reversible hashes, and definitions of the protocols for remote logins defining a now-too-short field for passwords. The limitation could have made sense in the early 1990s, but then got carried forward far too long, and we are still stuck with it 25 years later.
expatpaul
16 days ago
Ah, I can see how that would happen. In my experience, many of the problems with Windows can be traced to poor early implementation that was never (or becomes increasingly difficult to) fix.
expatpaul
16 days ago
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Possibly the worst password rule is the one that demands you change your password on a regular basis. Either people will start writing down their passwords, or come up with a pattern that ensures their passwords are always easy to guess.
Belgium
wffurr
16 days ago
What's wrong with writing down passwords? A written copy is extremely useful, if you secure it the same way you do your money and credit cards, i.e. carry it in your pocket.
expatpaul
16 days ago
Point taken, wffurr. I was thinking more about the corporate environment which is where I usually see mad password rules like these. The number of times I have seen passwords on post-it notes, whichg are stuck somewhere convenient, is quite frightening.
expatpaul
16 days ago
That said, the best approach is to use a password manager to store randomly generated passwords. Of course, my current employer bans the use of password mangers.
HarlandCorbin
16 days ago
Must change password every 21 days. Cannot reuse last 50 passwords. **These** rules make my passwords less secure than they could be. I have given up generating passwords that I can reasonably type that follow the rules. I mean, 21 days?!?
expatpaul
16 days ago
21 days? Ouch! The worst I saw was every 30 days, and I know a number of people using a combination on month and year for their password.
HarlandCorbin
16 days ago
And the new password can only have (IIRC) one point of similarity with the previous one.
expatpaul
16 days ago
That's just painful. It's rules like that which are just asking everyone to write their password on the nearest available post-it note.
Aatch
15 days ago
That's weirdly strict. We have a change every 90 days and you can't use your last 2 passwords. That's it. Simple enough to rotate a handful of passwords 4 times a year.
chrisrosa
15 days ago
this one drives me crazy. the damn auditors eat password expiry up and are always pushing for less time. total bs.
mareino
15 days ago
There is a government personnel website I've used where (1) the average user logs in about 2x/year, (2) the password resets monthly.
WorldMaker
11 days ago
The NIST guidelines link in the post also strongly recommend against arbitrary password expiration. I sent the NIST document to my corporate IT when they changed password expiration rules just recently. It hasn't impacted any change, but at least I tried to talk sense to power.
expatpaul
10 days ago
@WorldMaker: I'm impressed that you tried to talk sense, but the main problem with large corporations is that they tend to adopt a checkbox approach to these things. People have to prove that they are doing _something_ about security; no-one ever asks whether what they are doing is actually useful.
WorldMaker
9 days ago
@expatpaul: Arguably as a software developer a part of my role is to evaluate and better the company's software. Even if that just means writing a ticket every few weeks to try to argue true industry best practices against fads and security theater. Of course, without a CTO title they don't have to listen to me, but I can hope they might at least read it. Even if they are hearing stupid crap from outside security consultants and terrible software vendors that should be destroyed for the betterment of the corporate world like Oracle. The only way we might see change is to keep talking sense to power and hope someone listens or promotes us until they have to listen.
chrisrosa
9 days ago
As long as companies want to do business with companies the require SOC2, HIPPA, SOX, etc. (not to mention their own compliance BS), it doesn't really matter. At least NIST is on board.

Kids Photobomped this BBC Interview Like Someone Escaping the Texas Chainsaw Massacre House

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Playtime's over.

During a BBC interview with Professor Robert Kelly about South Korea, Kelly's children made an unexpected cameo, wandering into his study and on camera. 

As cute as this is, the best part is when a woman rushes in chasing after the children, like Leatherface hunting down someone who escaped the Texas Chainsaw Massacre house.

She lets them out of her sight for one second and they escape. 

via YouTube

via YouTube

 

Submitted by: (via BBC News)

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chrisminett
16 days ago
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This is me trying to work at home. Great when he tries to push the kid away!
Milton Keynes, UK
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Hacking

8 Comments and 14 Shares
The dump also contains a list of millions of prime factors, a 0-day Tamagotchi exploit, and a technique for getting gcc and bash to execute arbitrary code.
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chrisminett
18 days ago
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All for the alt text!
Milton Keynes, UK
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6 public comments
jsanders
17 days ago
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EhrMahGodddd!
Lacey, Washington
masseurG
17 days ago
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Hack
Cincinnati
rclatterbuck
18 days ago
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Do these vile perfidious wizards know no bounds?
alt_text_bot
18 days ago
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The dump also contains a list of millions of prime factors, a 0-day Tamagotchi exploit, and a technique for getting gcc and bash to execute arbitrary code.
Screwtape
18 days ago
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The CIA dump also includes a surprisingly comprehensive archive of Japanese-style Unicode faces (kaomoji): https://wikileaks.org/ciav7p1/cms/page_17760284.html

ლ(╹◡╹ლ)
fxer
18 days ago
They have table flip, but not table calm??? OUTRAGEOUS!!!! ┬──┬ ノ( ゜-゜ノ)
chrisrosa
18 days ago
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hah. true. #vault7
San Francisco, CA

Bare Bones Software sunsetting TextWrangler, focusing fully on BBEdit text editor development

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Bare Bones Software announced this week it will no longer develop new versions of its free code editor app TextWrangler. While the software will continue to work barring any future show stopping bugs, Bare Bones says it won’t release updates to TextWrangler for the next version of macOS.

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Filed under: Apple



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chrisminett
22 days ago
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Time to look around again. Maybe try Smultron, as I always liked the simplicity of Fraise, with features when needed. Could never get on with TextWrangler
Milton Keynes, UK
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Error'd: Meats or Exceeds My Expectations

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"Sure, it's a bit expensive, but hey, where else can you find a place with a huge outside baloney?" Keith S. wrote.

 

"People think that nobody plays Candy Crush any more," writes Maddie, "It seems their testers agree."

 

Alex writes, "Well, looks like Facebook is testing in production again."

 

"These empty groups in Facebook Workplace are definitely where things take off...any minute now..." Björn E. wrote.

 

Janez writes, "Seeing a stack trace while driving hits you a little differently than when you're at your desk."

 

"Ok, name parsing can be tricky, but sometimes it's best to just not to try so hard," wrote Geoff G.

 

Peter K. writes, "Now we know that XP is hiding out in the French Alps."

 

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chrisminett
30 days ago
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5th item down: php in the car!
Milton Keynes, UK
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